Newfoundland and Labrador Sources:
Reforming Municipal Government in Newfoundland and Labrador
Task Force on Municipal Regionalization
Building stronger local governments and regions: An action plan for the future of local governance in New Brunswick: Report of the Commissioner on the Future of Local Governance. (2008) Government of New Brunswick
A guide to voluntary municipal restructuring. (2008) Saskatchewan Government Relations, Municipal Relations Division
- Contains a detailed analysis of local governance institutions and the challenges they are facing. Recommendations include: eliminating unincorporated areas; reconstituting local service districts, rural communities, villages and most towns into larger municipal units; establishing 12 regional service districts and boards to exclusively deliver specific services (planning, solid waste management, policing, emergency measures and economic development); increasing fiscal autonomy for local government, including abolishing the current unconditional grant funding system; accountability and transparency measures for municipal government; consolidating various statutory provisions; spheres of jurisdiction approach for by-law-making powers and responsibilities of municipalities; and implementation recommendations.
Managing changes to local government structure in British Columbia: A review and program guide. (2000) British Columbia. Ministry of Municipal Affairs.
- Provides a step-by-step overview of the process of voluntary municipal restructuring to assist in determining if voluntary restructuring is desired. It lists quick facts on municipalities in Saskatchewan and several examples of municipal dissolution and incorporation in Saskatchewan. It then provides a step-by-step process for voluntary municipal restructuring. It also provides guidance on financial assistance for voluntary municipal restructuring and available help from the Ministry of Municipal Affairs. Appendix A provides a financial comparison worksheet and Appendix B outlines the process of village dissolution.
Functional economic areas in Saskatchewan: A framework for municipal restructuring. (2000)
- Provides the framework for local government restructuring activity in British Columbia. It explains the provincial interest in local government structures that adapt to changing circumstances; reviews the option available to local governments and communities that are considering restructuring; outlines the ministry programs which facilitate the process for restructuring local governments; and clarifies the roles of those involved in the restructuring process.
Revisiting municipal reforms in Quebec and the new responsibilities of local actors in a globalising world. Draft. (2003) Institute of Intergovernmental Relations
- Provides a brief historical background of economic, agricultural and rural development in Saskatchewan since the beginning of the 20th century. Discusses two systems of functional economic areas: one based on an 11 region system and the other on 17. Examines commuting patterns, population projections and administrative framework. It includes the results of a public opinion survey. Includes recommendations.
Municipal reorganization in Quebec. (2000)
- Looks at the history of Québec's municipal reforms since the Quiet Revolution; presents an overview of the new municipal reforms, particularly the political and institutional changes in Montréal; and, suggests an analysis of the limitations of these reforms.
Toward a process model of local government restructuring: Evidence from Canada. (2000)
- Examines the report of the Commission and the reorganization plan that was proposed by the Québec government in the beginning of 2000. It uses Kingdon's theoretical framework to analyze the determinants of the policy process.
Working together: Report of the Capital Region Integrated Growth Management Plan project team. (2007)
- Suggests that city-regions proceed through distinct stages of reform. Develops a descriptive process model, which traces the progress of local and regional government reorganization for a hypothetical city-region. Canadian examples are used to identify how the local government system progresses.
Local governance and regional collaboration for New Brunswick. (2003) New Brunswick. Select Committee on Local Governance and Regional Collaboration
- Analyzes the feasibility and benefit of creating an integrated growth management plan for Alberta's Capital Region. The report addresses past approaches to regional cooperation and the need for a regional approach; framework for an integrated regional growth management plan; the recommended regional governance structure and approach; cost estimates for future infrastructure needs; cost sharing; funding the Regional Board's activities and mandate; and establishing the Board and creating a framework for land use decisions.
Building better cities: Regional cooperation in Western Canada. (2001) Calgary, AB: Canada West Foundation
- Reports on a public consultation to explore acceptable and appropriate local governance models and regional service delivery structures, conducted in response to recommendations of the Round Table on Local Governance for unincorporated areas, regional collaboration and service delivery. Some recommendations are targeted at laying the foundation for the gradual acquisition of local powers in unincorporated areas. Other recommendations are targeted at improving existing regional service commissions and at providing a mechanism for communities to voluntarily and formally enter into arrangements for the shared provision of other services.
Regional governance explored: A review of the Edmonton Capital Region. (2008)
- Examines the potential for municipalities within a city-region to cooperate. It investigates the current status of regional governance, the pressures for, and barriers to, regional cooperation, strategies for First Nations participation in regional governance, and best practices in regional cooperation.
A review of rural and regional development policies and programs. (2008)
- Reviews the nature of city-regions and why they exist, describes the history of the Capital Region, and specifically addresses some of the formal issues that must be considered in the development of regional governance structures.
Ottawa, ON. Canadian Policy Research Networks
Beyond the municipal: Governance for Canadian cities. (2004)
- Provides an overview of public policies and policy instruments to promote rural and regional development in Canada, at the federal level and select other jurisdictions (Ontario, Québec, British Columbia, the European Union, the United Kingdom, Scotland, Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Alaska, Oregon, and Wisconsin). Approaches include traditional economic instruments; promotion of innovation, technology and regional clusters; support for local economic development; community development and capacity building; and new governance models. concludes with summary of key lessons for the Newfoundland and Labrador context.
New regionalist metropolitan action: The case of the Alberta Capital Region Alliance. (2004)
- Outlines the issues that are associated with the debates about boundaries and functions and points out that, especially for Toronto and Montréal, the recent municipal amalgamations have prompted wide-ranging attempts to fix the internal municipal governance problems apparently caused, in some respects at least, by the amalgamations themselves. It also notes that the governance of Canadian cities is too important to be left to municipalities alone-regardless of their size or sway.
Managing the coordination of service delivery in metropolitan cities: The role of metropolitan governance. (2007)
- Provides a case study of one such "new regionalist" response. It examines the Alberta Capital Region Alliance (ACRA), a voluntary, polycentric regional organization that provides the Greater Edmonton Metropolitan region with its only pan-regional venue for coordinated municipal government action and regional advocacy.
Accelerating investment for the future prosperity of metropolitan regions: The case of Montreal. (2004)
- Examines metropolitan models of governing structure and evaluates how well these models achieve the coordination of service delivery over the entire metropolitan area as well as the extent to which they result in the equitable sharing of costs of services. The models examined include: one-tier fragmented, one-tier consolidated, two-tier, voluntary cooperation, special purpose districts.
Comox Strathcona Regional District restructuring: Post-restructuring service delivery analysis. (2007) Cortenay, BC
- Looks at the role of city regions as players in the creation of the wealth of nations and offers the example of the goal for growth of the Montreal Metropolitan Community and the factors that are necessary for this to occur, including the creation of a new partnership to accelerate public investment and revenue sharing of this new growth in order to reinvest in the communities.
Shared vision for action: Planning framework and government orientations: Montréal Metropolitan Region 2001-2021. (2001) Québec, QC
- Provides a detailed service analysis of the impacts of splitting Comox Strathcona Regional District into two separate regional districts. It covers: government services, fire protection, 911 emergency answering service, building inspection services, water services, liquid waste management, pesticide awareness service, solid waste management and other waste services, planning, geographic information services, by-law enforcement, community parks, and recreation and pools.
Accommodating multiple boundaries for local services: British Columbia's local governance system. (2002) Bloomington, IN: Indiana University
- Contains a planning framework for the Montréal Metropolitan Region, including: the territory of the metropolitan region of Montréal; costs and problems of an expanding metropolis; Government's vision statement on land use planning and development and the concept of spatial organization; Government's expectations for the Communauté métropolitaine de Montréal; and government equipment and infrastructure projects, including tourist facilities, transportation infrastructures, and facilities and services for people.
Local government in British Columbia. (2008) Union of British Columbia Municipalities
- Describes British Columbia's regional-district municipality system for local governance. Examines theoretical issues relating to determining institutional arrangements and boundaries for different public goods and services, the problems that have arisen, and its evolution over time. Includes the author's suggestions for incremental modifications in a county-municipality system to achieve similar results to US metropolitan areas.
Cities in Canadian federalism. (2008)
- Provides an overview of the role, powers, and structure of local government in British Columbia. It covers: provincial ministry and agency functions related to local governments; municipal incorporation, expansion, and amalgamation; municipal governance; municipal elections and referenda; municipal services and finance; the functions, governance, and finance of regional district governments; other local governments (school districts, improvement districts, regional hospital districts, regional library districts, and the Islands Trust); local government service delivery; protective services; engineering services; recreation and cultural services; social services; local planning functions (regulation and development); labour relations; local government revenue sources and financing; and First Nation Governments.
Municipal organization in Canada: Tradition and transformation, varying from province to province. (2003) Montréal, QC
- Discusses how federal, provincial, and municipal governments can find a means to provide cities with access to self-managed revenue sources in light of the fixed municipal revenue base, the offloading of services to municipalities by the provinces, and increasing infrastructure deficit. It details limited revenue sharing agreements and programs, offers three reasons why the federal government should care about cities, and the need for adequate revenue sources from fiscal powers granted by the provinces.
- Provides an overview of the principle characteristics of municipal organization in Canada, and outlines specific features in certain provinces and some of the changes that have been under municipal responsibilities, functions and roles; municipalities' financial and fiscal resources; municipal organization in metropolitan areas; the electoral system, administrative organization, and intergovernmental relations. concludes with a section examining the arguments currently being presented by big cities that are demanding a change in status under the Constitution, and are consequently calling for a major overhaul of Canada's municipal organization.
Governing metropolitan regions in the 21st century. (2009) Armonk, NY
- Examines current and historical trends in metropolitan governance in the United States and to a lesser extent Canada and Mexico. Of note are the chapters on metropolitan governance in Canada by andrew Sancton and Vancouver's regional governance by Patrick Smith.
Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations (1987).The Organization of Local Public Economies
- This commission report reviews the optimal structure of local government. The report declares that a multiplicity of general and special purpose governments contributes to democratic values and coherent local public economy. The report distinguishes between the provision (that is, the determination of what) and the production (that is, the determination of how) of public goods and services.
Local Government Structure And Performance: Lessons From America? (1992)
- The debate in the UK on the reform of local government structure is poorly informed by empirical evidence. This article bridges part of the empirical gap by drawing upon analyses of structural effects in the USA. Two main dimensions of structure are outlined: fragmentation and concentration, both of which can vary vertically and horizontally. Fourteen structural hypotheses are identified and categorized as technical, competitive and political effects.
Contract-Management Capacity in Municipal and County Governments. (2003)
- Under pressure to do more with less, governments across the country have moved from direct service provision to providing services by contract. Proponents argue that contracting can reduce costs and improve flexibility and customer satisfaction. Critics point to a growing number of failed contracts, arguing there are numerous pitfalls associated with contracting. Missing from these debates is a discussion of how governments' managerial capacity can improve contract performance. This article identifies specific capacities that governments can use to harness the promise of contracting while avoiding its pitfalls. It presents analyses of data on municipal and county government contracting activities that show how governments invest in contract-management capacity in response to several internal and external threats to effective contract performance. Because government investment in contract management capacity is uneven - that is, some governments invest in less capacity, even when circumstances would call for more - our analyses may help to explain why some contract arrangements are more successful than others.
Alternative Service Delivery Strategies for Local Government. (2001) Annual Meeting of the American
Agricultural Economics Association. Chicago, IL
- A model of observing public service delivery choice in the presence of economic expansion is presented. Regression techniques were used to estimate the share of county population served by volunteer fire protection from variables measuring community demands for and relative costs of fire protection services. The study reviews factors determining use of volunteer versus paid firefighters.
Department of Infrastructure, Transportation, Regional Development and Local Government, (2004). 2003-2004 Report on the Operation of the Local Government (Financial Assistance) Act 1995
- This report of the Australian government examines various structural reforms. Typically, economic approaches to local government performance improvements take one of two forms. In the 'conventional' view, large, hierarchical, multipurpose organizations are seen as the best way to organize local public services. This approach argues that in a 'consolidated' structure, all services are provided by a single unit that covers a wide geographical area. Economic arguments usually advanced in support of this view include economies of scale, economies of scope, administration and compliance costs (Dollery & Crase 2004). The 'public choice' perspective that has gained prominence in the last 40 years provides a sharply contrasting view. Proponents argue that efficiency and responsiveness are enhanced by local government structures that are based on markets and competition rather than on structural and administrative consolidation.
Alternative to Amalgamation in Australian Local Government: The Case of Walkerville. (2005)
- Structural reform chiefly through council amalgamation has long been the most favored means of enhancing municipal efficiency by Australian state government policy makers. However, the disappointing results of most amalgamation programs have led to a growing skepticism in the local government community and a search for alternative methods of improving council efficiency. Not only have scholars designed generic models suitable for Australian conditions, but individual councils and group of councils around the country have also developed several de facto alternatives to amalgamation. An embryonic body of research has now begun to examine the efficacy of these alternative organizational arrangements. The present paper seeks to augment this nascent literature evaluating the outcomes achieved by Walkerville; an Adelaide suburban council that escaped the 1998 South Australian merger program.
Enhancing Efficiency in Australian Local Government: An Evaluation of Alternative Models of Municipal Governance. (2005)
- Broad consensus exists in Australian policy circles on the need to enhance the efficiency of local government. However, the question of the most appropriate model for local governance remains controversial. Quite apart from larger amalgamated municipalities, a range of promising alternative options can be identified that may be able to effectively combine more efficient service delivery with vibrant local democracy.
Little Mergers on the Prairie. (2006)
- This article examines how Iowa has addressed the concern that it has more government than it now needs. Iowa has 3,000 cities and towns, 99 counties as well as special districts. The Governor proposed to replace all local governments with 15 regional governments. With a stagnant tax base, Iowa has few options. The Governor's proposal was met with resistance, but, on a positive note, Iowa municipalities are working more together. "For local officials, saving a lot of money right away isn't as great a concern as doing things more efficiently when they can, whether that means streamlining internally or reaching out to new partners."
Cooperate, Collaborate, Consolidate: Options for Local Government in Monroe County. (2003)
- Local governments in Monroe County are caught in the convergence of several trends that are producing current and projected multi-million dollar budget deficits in the two largest governments - the city and the county - and have strained town, village and school district budgets as well. These trends are (1) the rising cost of government at all levels; (2) a stagnating local economy; and (3) high local taxes. The primary objective of this report was “To inform and update the public about opportunities to make government more effective and efficient through cooperation, collaboration, and/or consolidation.”
Is Municipal Consolidation the Answer? (2003)
- This article reviews the literature on size and evaluates the effectiveness of consolidations. The article begins by stating that fragmentation is usually assumed to be inefficient, but remarks that there is a growing body of evidence indicating that this conventional wisdom may not always be true. It compares the arguments for and against consolidation and reviews some of the research and case studies. The article suggests alternatives to consolidation that may provide alternative paths to efficiency.
Two-Tiered Government in Monroe County, New York. G. R. I. P. o. t. N. A. o. P. Administration.
- The National Academy of Public Administration sponsored this report which studied every governmental unit within the irregular boundaries of Monroe County, New York, except scholl districts, and makes recommendations concerning them -- how the governmental services should be delivered and who should deliver them; how the representative bodies should be structured; how the financial impact should fall upon people; and how all of that could be implemented.